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Borobodur Temple complex is one of the greatest
monuments in the world. It is of uncertain age, but thought to have been
built between the end of the seventh and beginning of the eighth century A.D.
For about a century and a half it was the spiritual centre of Buddhism in Java,
then it was lost until its rediscovery in the eighteenth century.
structure, composed of 55,000 square meters of lava-rock is erected
on a hill in the form of a stepped-pyramid of six rectangular stories,
three circular terraces and a central stupa forming the summit. The whole
structure is in the form of a lotus, the sacred flower of Buddha.
lowest level has 160 reliefs depicting cause and effect; the middle level
contains various stories of the Buddha's life from the Jataka Tales; the highest
level has no reliefs or decorations whatsoever but has a balcony, square in
shape with round walls: a circle without beginning or end. Here is the place of
the ninety-two Vajrasattvas or Dhyani Buddhas tucked into small stupas. Each of
these statues has a mudra (hand gesture) indicating one of the five directions:
east, with the mudra of calling the earth to witness; south, with the hand
position of blessing; west, with the gesture of meditation; north, the mudra of
fearlessness; and the centre with the gesture of teaching.
being the highest symbol of Buddhism, the Borobodur stupa is also a replica of
the universe. It symbolises the micro-cosmos, which is divided into three
levels, in which man's world of desire is influenced by negative
impulses; the middle level, the world in which man has control of his negative
impulses and uses his positive impulses; the highest level, in which the world
of man is no longer bounded by physical and worldly ancient desire.
is devotional practice to circumambulate around the galleries and terraces
always turning to the left and keeping the edifice to the right while either
chanting or meditating. In total, Borobodur represents the ten levels of a
Bodhisattva's life which he or she must develop to become a Buddha or an